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  1. As a young woman growing up during Reconstruction, Ida B. Wells experienced Jim Crow segregation when she was barred from travel on a train in the whites-only section. It was not until she observed the growing practice of violence toward African Americans that she began her crusade to stop lynching. This video shows Wells grow from school teacher to journalist to founding member of the NAACP.

    © 2002 Quest Productions, VideoLine Productions and Educational Broadcasting Corporation

  2. The video from The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross provides an overview of the demonization of African Americans following the Emancipation Proclamation and the propaganda campaign that served to reinforce Jim Crow.

    © 2013 Kunhardt McGee Productions, Inkwell Films and THIRTEEN Productions LLC

  3. Explore the history of voter suppression efforts in the U.S., from the Jim Crow era through the post-1965 Voting Rights Act era, in this video clip from Whose Vote Counts | FRONTLINE.

    © 2020 WGBH Educational Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Under pressure from congressional republicans, suffragists are asked in 1869 to support the 15th Amendment, which extended the franchise to African American men only, shattering the coalition of abolitionists and suffragists and introducing race into future relations.

    © 2020 WGBH Educational Foundation. All rights reserved.

  5. Learn how Black women continue to lead the fight for suffrage rights, 100 years after the passage of the 19th Amendment and 55 years after the Voting Rights Act, in this digital video from The Vote | AMERICAN EXPERIENCE. Use this video when studying the women’s suffrage movement to explore the leadership role of African American women in the long struggle for voting rights and examine historic and contemporary efforts to suppress the African American vote.

    © 2020 WGBH Educational Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

  6. This video from The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow identifies two major leaders in the black community during the era of Jim Crow: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois. By the turn of the 20th century, Washington was an incredibly popular figure who, among many accomplishments, had become the leader of the Tuskegee Institute and started the National Business League. Washington maintained that African Americans could achieve economic progress and spiritual growth but only by accepting the confines of Jim Crow. Du Bois, on the other hand, attacked Washington’s methodology publicly and emphasized the importance of intellectual rigor and equality for African Americans in all aspects of American life, with no exceptions. Nowhere were his verbal assaults on Washington as strong as in his 1903 book The Souls of Black Folk.

    © 2002 Quest Productions, VideoLine Productions and Educational Broadcasting Corporation.

  7. Discover how a group of African American soldiers helped change attitudes about race as a result of their heroic peacetime service fighting a 1910 wildfire, in this video adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE: The Big Burn. After a violent electrical storm ignited nearly 1,000 fires across the drought-stricken Northern Rockies in 1910, the federal government sent troops to fight them, including men from the 25th Infantry, known as the Buffalo Soldiers, the first division of African Americans to serve as professional peacetime soldiers. Despite their inexperience fighting fires, and in the face of local racist sentiment, these African Americans evacuated and later saved the town of Avery, halting the advance of a fire that threatened to destroy it and winning over the local population.

    © 2016 WGBH Educational Foundation. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Khamisi

    Jim Crow of the North (PBS Special)

    Jim Crow of the North charts the progression of racist policies and practices from the advent of restrictive covenants to their elimination in the late 1960s. Racial disparities are seen through a new lens in this film that explores the origins of housing segregation in the Minneapolis area. The story also illustrates how African-American families and leaders resisted this insidious practice.
  9. The lynching of Lawrence W. Nelson, May 25, 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma.

    © Public Domain

  10. The lynching of Laura Nelson and her son Lawrence Nelson on 25 May 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma.

    © Public Domain

  11. The Lynching of Bennie Simmons, soaked in coal oil before being set on fire. June 13, 1913, Anadarko, Oklahoma.

    © Public Domain

  12. The 1893 public lynching of black teenager Henry Smith in Paris, Texas.

    © Public Domain

  13. The lynching of Laura Nelson in Okemah, Oklahoma, on May 25, 1911.

    © Public Domain

  14. Lynching of Jesse Washington in Waco, Texas, on May 15, 1916. He was repeatedly lowered and raised onto a fire for about two hours. A professional photographer took pictures of the lynching as it unfolded.

    © Public Domain

  15. The body of George Meadows, lynched near the Pratt Mines in Jefferson County, Alabama, on January 15, 1889.

    © Public Domain

  16. The lynching of Jim Redmond, Gus Roberson, and Bob Addison, and one onlooker. May 17, 1892. Habersham County, Georgia.

    © Public Domain

  17. Lynching of John William Clark in Cartersville, Georgia, September 1930, after killing Police Chief J. B. Jenkins

    © Public Domain

  18. Pictures of the lynching of Roosevelt Townes and Robert McDaniels in 1937 were the first photos of lynchings to be published by the national press.

    © Public Domain

  19. A group of white men pose for a 1919 photograph as they stand over the black victim Will Brown who had been lynched and had his body mutilated and burned during the Omaha race riot of 1919 in Omaha, Nebraska.

    © Public Domain

  20. Postcard of the 1920 Duluth, Minnesota lynchings. Two of the Black victims are still hanging while the third is on the ground. Postcards of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.

    © Public Domain

  21. The lynching of African American Will James in Cairo, Illinois, on November 11, 1909. A crowd of thousands watched the lynching.

    © Public Domain

  22. Khamisi

    The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow

    The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow is a landmark four-part series that tells the story of the African-American struggle and triumphs from 1865-1954, known as the Reconstruction and Jim Crow Eras. Lynchings and beatings by night. Demeaning treatment by day. And a life of crushing subordination for Southern blacks that was maintained by white supremacist laws and customs known as "Jim Crow." It was a brutal and oppressive era in American history, but during this time, large numbers of African Americans and a corps of influential black leaders bravely fought against the status quo, amazingly acquiring for African Americans the opportunities of education, business, land ownership, and a true spirit of community. that tells the story of the African American struggle for freedom during the period of segregation in the South, 1880-1954. Episode 1: Promises Betrayed (1865 - 1896) Episode one begins with the end of the American Civil War and Reconstruction, periods that held so much promise for free black men and women. But as the North gradually withdrew its support for black aspirations for land, civil and political rights, and legal due process, Southern whites succeeded in passing laws that segregated and disfranchised African Americans, laws that were reinforced with violence and terror tactics. By 1876, Reconstruction was over. "Promises Betrayed" recounts black response by documenting the work of such leaders as activist/separatist Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, anti-lynching crusader Ida B. Wells, as well as the emergence of Booker T. Washington as a national figure. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow PBS ep 1 of 4 Promises Betrayed.mp4 Episode 2: Fighting Back (1896 - 1917) Episode 2 explores the dramatic rise of a successful black middle class and the determination of white supremacists to destroy this fledgling black political power. Through the efforts of men and women like educator Charlotte Hawkins Brown, African Americans continued to move forward. Black artists created new genres of American music and an intellectual elite, personified by the pioneering W.E.B. Du Bois, emerged. Du Bois, a charter member of the newly founded National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), was the editor of its magazine, THE CRISIS. This episode ends with the violence at home giving way to warfare abroad as thousands of black Americans depart for World War I. 1151099918_TheRiseandFallofJimCrowPBSep2of4FightingBack.mp4 Episode 3: Don't Shoot Too Soon (1918 - 1940) Episode 3 chronicles the years between World Wars I and II, a time of increased mob violence, lynchings, and massacres of blacks. White supremacy was kept in place by terrorism,but three men, each part of the fledgling NAACP, led campaigns to confront these threats. W.E.B. Du Bois called for veterans of World War I to "return fighting." Walter White went among the lynchers to discover the truth behind the rapes and insurrections allegedly committed by blacks, and Charles Hamilton Houston designed and successfully applied a legal strategy that challenged Jim Crow and resulted in the famous "Brown vs. Board of Education" decision, which desegregated public schools in 1954. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow PBS ep 3 of 4 Don't Shoot to soon.mp4 Episode 4: Terror and Triumph (1940 - 1954) The final episode examines the surge of black activism that took place after World War II. Prolonged legal battles led to Supreme Court decisions that opened doors and restored voting rights for blacks. The battle for freedom, dignity, and opportunity throughout America continued through the '50s and '60s -- and in many respects, continues today. The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow PBS ep 4 of 4 Terror and Triumph.mp4
  23. Khamisi

    The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow

    Traces the African-American experience from emancipation to the Civil Rights era, discussing the contributions of top African-American leaders and heroes, the emergence of the black middle class and the intellectual elite, and the origins of the NAACP. 50,000 first printing.
  24. The Atlanta compromise was an agreement proposed in 1895 by Booker T. Washington, president of the Tuskegee Institute, between African-American leaders and Southern white leaders. It was first supported and later opposed by W. E. B. Du Bois and other African-American leaders. The agreement was that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law. Blacks would not focus their demands on equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities. Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Board of Directors and Citizens: One-third of the population of the South is of the Negro race. No enterprise seeking the material, civil, or moral welfare of this section can disregard this element of our population and reach the highest success. I but convey to you, Mr. President and Directors, the sentiment of the masses of my race when I say that in no way have the value and manhood of the American Negro been more fittingly and generously recognized than by the managers of this magnificent Exposition at every stage of its progress. It is a recognition that will do more to cement the friendship of the two races than any occurrence since the dawn of our freedom. Not only this, but the opportunity here afforded will awaken among us a new era of industrial progress. Ignorant and inexperienced, it is not strange that in the first years of our new life we began at the top instead of at the bottom; that a seat in Congress or the state legislature was more sought than real estate or industrial skill; that the political convention or stump speaking had more attractions than starting a dairy farm or truck garden. A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal,“Water, water; we die of thirst!” The answer from the friendly vessel at once came back, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A second time the signal, “Water, water; send us water!” ran up from the distressed vessel, and was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” And a third and fourth signal for water was answered, “Cast down your bucket where you are.” The captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket, and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land or who underestimate the importance of cultivating friendly relations with the Southern white man, who is their next-door neighbor, I would say: “Cast down your bucket where you are”— cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by whom we are surrounded. Cast it down in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in domestic service, and in the professions. And in this connection it is well to bear in mind that whatever other sins the South may be called to bear, when it comes to business, pure and simple, it is in the South that the Negro is given a man’s chance in the commercial world, and in nothing is this Exposition more eloquent than in emphasizing this chance. Our greatest danger is that in the great leap from slavery to freedom we may overlook the fact that the masses of us are to live by the productions of our hands, and fail to keep in mind that we shall prosper in proportion as we learn to dignify and glorify common labour, and put brains and skill into the common occupations of life; shall prosper in proportion as we learn to draw the line between the superficial and the substantial, the ornamental gewgaws of life and the useful. No race can prosper till it learns that there is as much dignity in tilling a field as in writing a poem. It is at the bottom of life we must begin, and not at the top. Nor should we permit our grievances to overshadow our opportunities. To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I say to my own race,“Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down among the eight millions of Negroes whose habits you know, whose fidelity and love you have tested in days when to have proved treacherous meant the ruin of your firesides. Cast down your bucket among these people who have, without strikes and labour wars, tilled your fields, cleared your forests, builded your railroads and cities, and brought forth treasures from the bowels of the earth, and helped make possible this magnificent representation of the progress of the South. Casting down your bucket among my people, helping and encouraging them as you are doing on these grounds, and to education of head, hand, and heart, you will find that they will buy your surplus land, make blossom the waste places in your fields, and run your factories. While doing this, you can be sure in the future, as in the past, that you and your families will be surrounded by the most patient, faithful, law-abiding, and unresentful people that the world has seen. As we have proved our loyalty to you in the past, in nursing your children, watching by the sick-bed of your mothers and fathers, and often following them with tear-dimmed eyes to their graves, so in the future, in our humble way, we shall stand by you with a devotion that no foreigner can approach, ready to lay down our lives, if need be, in defense of yours, interlacing our industrial, commercial, civil, and religious life with yours in a way that shall make the interests of both races one. In all things that are purely social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress. There is no defense or security for any of us except in the highest intelligence and development of all. If anywhere there are efforts tending to curtail the fullest growth of the Negro, let these efforts be turned into stimulating, encouraging, and making him the most useful and intelligent citizen. Effort or means so invested will pay a thousand per cent interest. These efforts will be twice blessed—blessing him that gives and him that takes. There is no escape through law of man or God from the inevitable: The laws of changeless justice bind Oppressor with oppressed; And close as sin and suffering joined We march to fate abreast... Nearly sixteen millions of hands will aid you in pulling the load upward, or they will pull against you the load downward. We shall constitute one-third and more of the ignorance and crime of the South, or one-third [of] its intelligence and progress; we shall contribute one-third to the business and industrial prosperity of the South, or we shall prove a veritable body of death, stagnating, depressing, retarding every effort to advance the body politic. Gentlemen of the Exposition, as we present to you our humble effort at an exhibition of our progress, you must not expect overmuch. Starting thirty years ago with ownership here and there in a few quilts and pumpkins and chickens (gathered from miscellaneous sources), remember the path that has led from these to the inventions and production of agricultural implements, buggies, steam-engines, newspapers, books, statuary, carving, paintings, the management of drug stores and banks, has not been trodden without contact with thorns and thistles. While we take pride in what we exhibit as a result of our independent efforts, we do not for a moment forget that our part in this exhibition would fall far short of your expectations but for the constant help that has come to our educational life, not only from the Southern states, but especially from Northern philanthropists, who have made their gifts a constant stream of blessing and encouragement. The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremest folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. No race that has anything to contribute to the markets of the world is long in any degree ostracized. It is important and right that all privileges of the law be ours, but it is vastly more important that we be prepared for the exercise of these privileges. The opportunity to earn a dollar in a factory just now is worth infinitely more than the opportunity to spend a dollar in an opera-house. In conclusion, may I repeat that nothing in thirty years has given us more hope and encouragement, and drawn us so near to you of the white race, as this opportunity offered by the Exposition; and here bending, as it were, over the altar that represents the results of the struggles of your race and mine, both starting practically empty-handed three decades ago, I pledge that in your effort to work out the great and intricate problem which God has laid at the doors of the South, you shall have at all times the patient, sympathetic help of my race; only let this be constantly in mind, that, while from representations in these buildings of the product of field, of forest, of mine, of factory, letters, and art, much good will come, yet far above and beyond material benefits will be that higher good, that, let us pray God, will come, in a blotting out of sectional differences and racial animosities and suspicions, in a determination to administer absolute justice, in a willing obedience among all classes to the mandates of law. This, coupled with our material prosperity, will bring into our beloved South a new heaven and a new earth.

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